References

This page will provide you with references to all the literature used in each section of the Borderline Personality Disorder Clinician Resource Centre. References are separated by the section they were cited in throughout this website.

Prevalence

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Arens, E. A., Stopsack, M., Spitzer, C., Appel, K., Dudeck, M., Völzke, H., … & Barnow, S. (2013). Borderline personality disorder in four different age groups: A cross-sectional study of community residents in Germany. Journal of Personality Disorders27(2), 196-207.

Bender, D. S., Dolan, R. T., Skodol, A. E., Sanislow, C. A., Dyck, I. R., McGlashan, T. H., Shea, M.T., Zanarini, M. C., Oldham, J. M, & Gunderson, J. G. (2001). Treatment utilization by patients with personality disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(2), 295-302.

Coid, J., Yang, M., Tyrer, P., Roberts, A., & Ullrich, S. (2006). Prevalence and correlates of personality disorder in Great Britain. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 188, 423-431.

Comtois, K. A., & Carmel, A. (2016). Borderline personality disorder and high utilization of inpatient psychiatric hospitalization: Concordance between research and clinical diagnosis. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research43(2), 272-280.

Grant, B.F., Chou, S.P., Goldstein, R.B., Huang, B., Stinson, F.S., Saha, T.D. … Ruan, W.J. (2008). Prevalence, Correlates, Disability, and Comorbidity of DSM-IV Borderline Personality Disorder: Results from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69(4), 533-545.

Grilo, C.M., McGlashan, T.H., Quinlan, D.M., Walker, M.L., Greenfeld, D. & Edell, W.S. (1998). Frequency of personality disorders in two age cohorts of psychiatric inpatients. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 155(1), 140-142.

Gross, R., Olfson, M., Gameroff, M., Shea, S., Feder, A., Fuentes, M. … Weissman, M.M. (2002). Borderline Personality Disorder in Primary Care. Archives of Internal Medicine, 162, 53-60.

Korzekwa, M.I., Dell, P.F., Links, P.S., Thabane, L. & Webb, S.P. (2008). Estimating the prevalence of borderline personality disorder in psychiatric outpatients using a two-phase procedure. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 49(4), 380-386.

Samuels, J., Eaton, W.W., Bienvenu III, O.J., Costa Jr, P.T. & Nestadt, G. (2002). Prevalence and correlates of personality disorders in a community sample. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 536-542.

Tomko, R. L., Trull, T. J., Wood, P. K., & Sher, K. J. (2014). Characteristics of borderline personality disorder in a community sample: Comorbidity, treatment utilization, and general functioning. Journal of personality disorders, 28(5), 734-750.

Torgersen, S., Kringlen, E., Cramer, V. (2001). The prevalence of personality disorders in a community sample. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 590-596.

Course

Gunderson, J. G., Bender, D., Sanislow, C., Yen, S., Bame Rettew, J., Dolan-Sewell, R., Dyck, I., Morey, L., McGlashan, T. H., Shea, M. T., & Skodol, A. E. (2003). Plausibility and possible determinants of sudden “remissions” in borderline patients. Psychiatry, 66, 111-119.

Gunderson, J. G. (2011). Borderline personality disorder. New England Journal of Medicine, 364, 2037-2042.

Gunderson, J. G., Stout, R. L., McGlashan, T. H., Shea, M. T., Morey, L. C., Grilo, C. M., Zanarini, M. C., Yen, S., Markowitz, J. C., Sanislow, C., Ansell, E., Pinto, A., & Skodol, A. E. (2011). Ten-year course of borderline personality disorder psychopathology and function from the collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68, 827-837

Leichsenring, F., Leibing, E., Kruse, J., New, A. S., & Leweke, F. (2011). Borderline personality disorder. Lancet, 377, 74-84.

Oldham, J. M. (2006). Borderline personality disorder and suicidality. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 20-26.

Perry, J. C., Banon, E., & Ianni, F. (1999). Effectiveness of psychotherapy for personality disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1312-1321.

Winograd, G., Cohen, P., & Chen, H. (2008). Adolescent borderline symptoms in the community: prognosis for functioning over 20 years. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 933-941.

Zanarini, M. C., Frankenburg, F. R., Reich, D. B., Silk, K. R., Hudson, J. I., & McSweeney, L. B. (2007). The subsyndromal phenomenology of borderline personality disorder: A 10-year follow-up study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 929-935.

Key Features

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ofMental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Bender, D. S., Dolan, R. F., Skodol, A. E., Sanislow, C. A., Dyck, I. R., McGlashan, T. H., Shea, M. T., Zanarini, M. C., Oldham, J. M., & Gunderson, J. G. (2001). Treatment utilization by patients with personality disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 295-302.

Gunderson, J. G. (2001). Borderline personality disorder: a clinical guide. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.

Lieb, K., Zanarini, M. C., Schmahl, C., Linehan, M. M., Bohus, M. (2004). Borderline personality disorder. Lancet, 364, 453-461.

Oldham, J. M. (2006). Borderline personality disorder and suicidality. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 20-26.

Paris, J. (2005). Borderline personality disorder. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 172, 1579-1583.

Skodol, A. E., Gunderson, J. G., Shea, M. T., et al. (2005) The Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS): overview and implications. Journal of Personality Disorders, 19, 487–504.

Zanarini, M. C. & Frankenburg, F. R. (2007). The essential nature of borderline psychopathology. Journal of Personality Disorders, 21, 518-535.

Diagnosis

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

American Psychiatric Association. (2011). DSM-5 Proposed Revision. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org.

Associated Features

Bagge, C., Nickell, A., Stepp, S., Durrett, C., Jackson, K., & Trull, T. J. (2004). Borderline personality disorder features predict negative outcomes 2 years later. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 279-288.

Chanen, A. M., Jovev, M., & Jackson, H. J. (2007). Adaptive functioning and psychiatric symptoms in adolescents with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68, 297-306.

Clarkin, J. F. (2006). Conceptualization and treatment of personality disorders. Psychotherapy Research, 16, 1-11.

Elliot, B., & Weissenborn, O. (2010). Employment for persons with borderline personality disorder. Psychiatric Services, 61, 417.

Grant, B. F., Chou, S. P., Goldstein, R. B., Huang, B., Stinson, F. S., Saha, T. D., Smith, S. M., Dawson, D. A., Pulay, A. J., Pickering, R. P., & Ruan, W. J. (2008). Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV borderline personality disorder: results from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69, 533–45.

Grilo, C. M., McGlashan, T. H., Quinlan, D. M., Walker, M. L., Greenfeld, D., & Edell, W. S. (1998). Frequency of personality disorders in two age cohorts of psychiatric inpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 140-142.

Jackson, H. J., & Burgess, P. M. (2000). Personality disorders in the community: a report from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 35, 531-538.

Lenzenweger, M. F., Lane, M. C., Loranger, A. W., & Kessler, R. C. (2007). DSM-TV personality disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 553-564.

Leichsenring, F., Leibing, E., Kruse, J., New, A. S., & Leweke, F. (2011). Borderline personality disorder. Lancet, 377, 74-84.

Newton-Howes, G., Tyrer, P., & Johnson, T. (2006). Personality disorder and the outcome of depression: Meta-analysis of published studies. British Journal of Psychiatry, 188, 13-20.

Sio, T., Chanen, A. M., Killackey, E. J., & Gleeson, J. (2011). The relationship between impulsivity and vocational outcome in outpatient youth with borderline personality features. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 5, 249-253.

Skodol, A. E., Gunderson, J. G., Pfohl, B., Widiger, T. A., Livesley, W. J., & Siever, L. J. (2002). The borderline diagnosis I: psychopathology, comorbidity, and personality structure. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 936-950. Skodol, A. E., Gunderson, J. G., McGlashan, T. H., Dyck, I. R., Stout, R. L., Bender, D. S., Grilo, C. M., Shea, M. T., Zanarini, M. C., Morey, L. C., Sanislow, C. A., & Oldham, J. M. (2002). Functional impairment in patients with schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 276-283.

Zanarini, M. C., Frankenburg, F. R., Dubo, E. D., Sickel, A. E., Trikha, A., Levin, A., & Reynolds, V. (1998). Axis I Comorbidity of Borderline Personality Disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry,155, 1733-1739.

Zanarini, M. C., Frankenburg, F. R , Reich, D., Marino, M. F., Haynes, M. C., & Gunderson, J. G. (1999). Violence in the lives of adult borderline patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 187, 65-71.

Zanarini, M. C., Frankenburg, F. R., Hennen, J., Reich, D. B., & Silk, K. R. (2005) Psychosocial functioning of borderline patients and axis II comparison subjects followed prospectively for six years. Journal of Personality Disorders, 19, 19—29

Zanarini, M. C. & Frankenburg, F. R. (2007). The essential nature of borderline psychopathology. Journal of Personality Disorders, 21, 518-535.

Etiology

Bandelow, B., Krause, J., Wedekind, D., Broocks, A., Hajak, G., & Rüther, E. (2005). Early traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history, and birth risk factors in patients with borderline personality disorder and healthy controls. Psychiatry Research, 134, 169-179.

Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Separation (Vol. 2). New York: Basic Books.

Coccaro, E. F., Lee, R., & McCloskey, M. (2003). Norepinephrine function in personality disorder: plasma free MHPG correlates inversely with life history of aggression. CNS Spectrum. 8, 731-736.

Donegan, N. H., Sanislow, C. A., Blumberg, H. P., Fulbright, R. K., Lacadie, C., Skudlarski, P., Gore, J. C., Olson, I. R., McGlashan, T. H., & Wexler, B. E. (2003). Amygdala hyperreactivity in borderline personality disorder: implications for emotional dysregulation. Biological Psychiatry. 54, 1284–1293.

Fonagy, P. (1991). Thinking about thinking: Some clinical and theoretical considerations in the treatment of a borderline patient. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 72, 639-656.

Fonagy, P., Gergely, G., Jurist, E. L., & Target, M. (2002). Affect regulation, mentalization, and the development of the self. New York, NY US: Other Press.

Fonagy, P., Leigh, T., Steele, M., Steele, H., Kennedy, R., Mattoon, G., & Gerber, A. (1996). The relation of attachment status, psychiatric classification, and response to psychotherapy. Journal Of Consulting And Clinical Psychology, 64, 22-31.

Kernberg, O. F. (1984). Severe personality disorders: Psychotherapeutic strategies. New Haven, CT US: Yale University Press.

Kernberg. O., & Michels, R. (2009). Borderline Personality Disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 505-508.

Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York, NY US: Guilford Press.

Links, P.S., Steiner, M., & Huxley, G. (1988). The occurrence of borderline personality disorder in the families of borderline patients. Journal of Personality Disorders, 2, 14-20.

New, A. S., Hazlett, E. A., Buchsbaum, M. S., Goodman, M., Mitelman, S. A., Newmark, R., Trisdorfer, R., Haznedar, M. M., Koenigsberg, H. W., Flory, J., & Siever, L. J. (2007). Amygdala-prefrontal disconnection in borderline personality disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 32,1629–1640.

Ogata, S. N., Silk, K. R., Goodrich, S., Lohr, N. E., Westen, D., & Hill, E. M. (1990). Childhood sexual and physical abuse in adult patients with borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147,1008-1013.

Oldham, J. M. (2009). Borderline personality disorder comes of age. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 509-511.

Perry, J. C., & Herman, J. L. (1993). Trauma and defense in the etiology of borderline personality disorder. In J. Paris (Ed.), Borderline Personality Disorder: etiology and treatment. Washington (DC): American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.

Rinne, T., Westenberg, H. G., den Boer, J. A., & van den Brink, W. (2000). Serotonergic blunting to meta-Chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) highly correlates with sustained childhood abuse in impulsive and autoaggressive female borderline patients. Biological Psychiatry, 47, 548-556.

Siever, L. J., Torgersen, S., Gunderson, J. G., Livesley, W. J., & Kendler, K. S. (2002). The borderline diagnosis III: identifying endophenotypes for genetic studies. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 964–968.

Torgersen, S., Lygren, S., Oien, A., Skre, I., Onstad, S., Edvardsen, J., Tambs, K., & Kringlen, E. (2000). A twin study of personality disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 41,416-425.

White, C. N., Gunderson, J. G., Zanarini, M. C., & Hudson, J. I. (2003). Family studies of borderline personality disorder: A review. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 11, 8-19.

Weaver, T. L., & Clum, G. A. (1993). Early family environments and traumatic experiences associated with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 61,1068-1075.

Wingenfeld, K., Spitzer, C., Rullkotter, N., & Lowe, B. (2010). Borderline personality disorder: Hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis and findings from neuroimaging studies. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 154-170.

Zanarini, M. C., Frankenburg, F. R., Reich, D. B., Marino, M. F., Lewis, R. E., Williams, A. A., & Khera, G. S. (2000). Biparental failure in the childhood experiences of borderline patients. Journal of Personality Disorders, 14, 264-273.

Psychotherapy for BPD

Gunderson, J. G. (2011). Borderline personality disorder. New England Journal of Medicine, 364, 2037-2042.

Leichsenring, F., Leibing, E., Kruse, J., New, A. S., & Leweke, F. (2011). Borderline personality disorder. Lancet, 377, 74-84.

McMain, S. F., Links, P. S., Gnam, W. H., Guimond, T., Cardish, R. J., Korman, L., & Streiner, D. L. (2009). A randomized trial of dialectical behavior therapy versus general psychiatric management for borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 1365-1374.

National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. (2009). Borderline Personality Disorder: The NICE GUIDELINE on Treatment and Management. National Clinical Practice Guideline No. 78. British Psychological Society & Royal College of Psychiatrists.

Oldham, J. M., Gabbard, G. O., Goin, M. K., Gunderson, J., Soloff, P., Spiegel, D., Stone, M., & Phillips, K. A. (2001). Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with borderlne personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1-52.

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for BPD

Chambless, D. L., & Ollendick, T. H. (2001). Empirically supported psychological interventions: Controversies and evidence. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 685-716.

Chapman, A. L. (2006). Dialectical behavior therapy: Current indications and unique elements. Psychiatry, 3(9), 62.

Clarkin, J. F., Levy, K. N., Lenzenweger, M. F., & Kernberg, O. F. (2007). Evaluating three treatments for borderline personality disorder: A multiwave study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 922-928.

Kliem, S., Kröger, C., & Kosfelder, J. (2010). Dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder: A meta-analysis using mixed-effects modeling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 936-951.

Koons, C. R., Robins, C. J., Tweed, J. L., Lynch, T. R., Gonzalez, A. M., Morse, J. Q., & Bastian, L. A. (2001). Efficacy of dialectical behavior therapy in women veterans with borderline personality disorder. Behavior Therapy, 32, 371-390.

Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York, NY US: Guilford Press.

Linehan, M. M., Armstrong, H. E., Suarez, A., & Allmon, D. (1991). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of chronically parasuicidal borderline patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 1060-1064.

Linehan, M. M., Comtois, K. A., Murray, A. M., Brown, M. Z., Gallop, R. J., Heard, H. L., & Lindenboim, N. (2006). Two-year randomized controlled trial and follow-up of dialectical behavior therapy vs therapy by experts for suicidal behaviors and borderline personality disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 757-766.

Linehan, M. M., Heard, H. L., & Armstrong, H. E. (1993). Naturalistic follow-up of a behavioral treatment for chronically parasuicidal borderline patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 971-974.

Linehan, M. M., Schmidt,Henry, I.,II, Dimeff, L. A., Craft, J. C., Kanter, J., & Comtois, K. A. (1999). Dialectical behavior therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder and drug-dependence. American Journal on Addictions, 8, 279-292.

McMain, S. F., Links, P. S., Gnam, W. H., Guimond, T., Cardish, R. J., Korman, L., & Streiner, D. L. (2009). A randomized trial of dialectical behavior therapy versus general psychiatric management for borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 1365-1374.

van den Bosch, L. M., Koeter, M. W., Stijnen, T., Verheul, R., & van den Brink, W. (2005). Sustained efficacy of dialectical behaviour therapy for borderline personality disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 1231-1241.

Verheul, R., van den Bosch, L. M., Koeter, M. W., de Ridder, M. A.., Stijnen, T., & van den Brink, W. (2003). Dialectical behaviour therapy for women with borderline personality disorder: 12-month, randomised clinical trial in the Netherlands. British Journal of Psychiatry, 182, 135-140.

Mentalization-Based Treatment (MBT) for BPD

Bateman, A. W., & Fonagy, P. (1999). The effectiveness of partial hospitalization in the treatment of borderline personality disorder – a randomised controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1563-1569.

Bateman, A. W., & Fonagy, P. (2004). Psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder: Mentalization based treatment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bateman, A. W., & Fonagy, P. (2006). Mechanisms of change in mentalization-based treatment of BPD. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 411-430.

Bateman, A. W., & Fonagy, P. (2008). 8-year follow-up of patients treated for borderline personality disorder: mentalization-based treatment versus treatment as usual. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 631-638.

Bateman, A. W., & Fonagy, P. (2009). Randomized controlled trial of outpatient mentalization-based treatment versus structured clinical management for borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 1355-1364.

Fonagy, P. & Bateman, A. W. (2007). Mentalizing and borderline personality disorder. Journal of Mental Health, 16, 83-101.

Fonagy, P., Gergely, G., Jurist, E., & Target, M. (2002). Affect regulation, mentalization and the development of the self. New York: Other Press.

Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) for BPD

Caligor, E., Diamond, D., Yeomans, F. E., & Kernberg, O. F. (2009). The interpretive process in the psychoanalytic psychotherapy of borderline personality pathology. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 57, 271-301.

Clarkin, J. F., Levy, K. N., Lenzenweger, M. F., & Kernberg, O. F. (2007). Evaluating three treatments for borderline personality disorder: a multiwave study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 922-928.

Clarkin, J.F., Yeomans, F., & Kernberg, O.F. (1999). Psychotherapy of borderline personality. New York: Wiley.

Doering, S., Horz, S., Rentrop, M., Fischer-Kern, M., Schuster, P., Benecke, C., Buchheim, A., Martius, P., & Buchheim, P. (2010). Transference-focused psychotherapy v. treatment by community psychotherapists for borderline personality disorder: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 196, 389-395.

Giesen-Bloo, J., van Dyck, R., Spinhoven, P., van Tilburg, W., Dirksen, C., van Asselt, T., Kremers, I., Nadort, M., & Arntz, A. (2006). Outpatient psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder. Archives of General Medicine, 63, 649-658.

Kernberg, O. F. (1984). Severe personality disorders: Psychotherapeutic strategies. New Haven, CT US: Yale University Press.

Levy, K. N., Clarkin, J. F., Yeomans, F. E., Scott, L. N., Wasserman, R. H., & Kernberg, O. F. (2006). The mechanisms of change in the treatment of borderline personality disorder with Transference Focused Psychotherapy. Journal Of Clinical Psychology, 62, 481–501.

Levy, K. N., Meehan, K. B., Kelly, K. M., Reynoso, J. S., Weber. M., Clarkin, J. F., & Kernberg, O. F. (2006). Change in attachment patterns and reflective function in a randomized control trial of transference-focused psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 1027–1040.

Yeomans, F. (2007). Questions concerning the randomized trial of schema-focused therapy vs transference-focused psychotherapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 609-610.

Schema-Focused Therapy (SFT) for BPD

Arntz, A., van Genderen, H., & Drost, J. (2009). Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Farrell, J. M., Shaw, I. A., & Webber, M. A. (2009). A schema-focused approach to group psychotherapy for outpatients with borderline personality disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Behaviour Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 40, 317-328.

Giesen-Bloo, J., van Dyck, R., Spinhoven, P., van Tilburg, W., Dirksen, C., van Asselt, T., Kremers, I., Nadort, M., & Arntz, A. (2006). Outpatient psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder. Archives of General Medicine, 63, 649-658.

Kellogg, S. H., & Young, J. E. (2006). Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 445-458.

Van Asselt, A.D.I., Dirksen, C.D., Arntz, A., Giesen-Bloo, J.H., van Dyck, R., Spinhoven, P. … Severens, J.L. (2008). Out-patient psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder: cost-effectiveness of schema-focused therapy v. transference-focused psychotherapy. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 192, 450-457.

Yeomans, F. (2007). Questions concerning the randomized trial of schema-focused therapy vs transference-focused psychotherapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 609-610.

Young, J. E. (2005). Schema-focused cognitive therapy and the case of Ms. S. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 15, 115-126.

Dynamic Deconstructive Psychotherapy (DDP)

Gregory, R. J., DeLucia-Deranja, E., & Mogle, J. A. (2010). Dynamic deconstructive psychotherapy versus optimized community care for borderline personality disorder co-occurring with alcohol use disorders: a 30-month follow-up. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198, 292-298.

Gregory, R. J., Remen, A. L., Soderberg, M., & Ploutz-Snyder, R. J. (2009). A controlled trial of psychodynamic psychotherapy for co-occurring borderline personality disorder and alcohol use disorder: six-month outcome. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 57, 199-205.

Other Psychodynamic Therapies for BPD

American Psychiatric Association (2001). Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158 (Oct suppl)

Clarkin, J. F., Levy, K. N., Lenzenweger, M. F., & Kernberg, O. F. (2007). Evaluating three treatments for borderline personality disorder: a multiwave study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 922-928.

Gunderson, J. G. (2001). Borderline personality disorder: a clinical guide. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.

McMain, S. F., Links, P. S., Gnam, W. H., Guimond, T., Cardish, R. J., Korman, L., & Streiner, D. L. (2009). A randomized trial of dialectical behavior therapy versus general psychiatric management for borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 1365-1374.

Rockland, L. H. (1992). Supportive therapy for borderline patients: a psychodynamic approach. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Werman, D. S. (1984). The practice of supportive psychotherapy. New York, NY: Bruner/Mazel Inc.

Other Cognitive-Behavioural Therapies for BPD

Blum, N., Pfohl, B., St John, D., Stuart, S., McCormick, B., Allen, J., Arndt, S., & Black, D. W. (2008). Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) for outpatients with borderline personality disorder: A randomized controlled trial and 1-year follow-up. American Journal of Psychiatry,165, 468-478.

Cottraux, J., Note, I. D., Boutitie, F., Milliery, M., Genouihlac, V., Yao, S. N., Note, B., Mollard, E., Bonasse, F., Gaillard, S., Djamoussian, D., de Mey Guillard, C., Culem, A., & Gueyffier, F. (2009). Cognitive therapy versus Rogerian supportive therapy in borderline personality disorder: two-year follow-up of a controlled pilot study. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 78, 307-316.

Davidson, K., Norrie, J., Tyrer, P., Gumley, A., Tata, P., Murray, H., & Palmer, S. (2006). The effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder: results from the borderline personality disorder study of cognitive therapy (BOSCOT) trial. Journal of Personality Disorders, 20, 450-465.

Tyrer, P., Tom, B., Byford, S., Schmidt, U., Jones, V., Davidson, K., Knapp, M., MacLeod, A., & Catalan, J. (2004). Differential effects of manual assisted cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of recurrent deliberate self-harm and personality disturbance: the POPMACT study. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18, 102-116.

Weinberg, I., Gunderson, J. G., Hennen, J., & Cutter, C. J. (2006). Manual assisted cognitive treatment for deliberate self-harm in borderline personality disorder patients. Journal of Personality Disorders, 20, 482-492.

Change Mechanisms in Empirically-Supported Treatments for BPD

Chambless, D. L., & Hollon, S. D. (1998). Defining empirically supported treatments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 7-18.

Chambless, D. L., & Ollendick, T. H. (2001). Empirically supported psychological interventions: Controversies and evidence. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 685-716.

Chapman, A. L., Turner, B. J., & Dixon-Gordon, K. L. (2011). To integrate or not to integrate dialectical behaviour therapy with other therapy approaches? Clinical Social Work Journal, 39, 170-179.

Lindenboim, N., Comtois, K. A., & Linehan, M. M. (2007). Skills practice in dialectical behavior therapy for suicidal women meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 14, 147-156.

Linehan, M. M. (1993a). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. NewYork : Guilford Press.

Linehan, M. M., Comtois, K. A., Murray, A. M., Brown, M. Z., Gallop, R. J., Heard, H. L., & Lindenboim, N. (2006). Two-year randomized controlled trial and follow-up of dialectical behavior therapy vs therapy by experts for suicidal behaviors and borderline personality disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 757-766.

Linehan, M. M., Dimeff, L. A., Reynolds, S. K., Comtois, K. A., Welch, S. S., Heagerty, P., & Kivlahan, D. R. (2002). Dialectal behavior therapy versus comprehensive validation therapy plus 12-step for the treatment of opioid dependent women meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 67, 13.

Livesley, W. J. (2005). Principles and strategies for treating personality disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 50, 442-450.

Miller, A. L., Wyman, S. E., Huppert, J. D., Glassman, S. L., & Rathus, J. H. (2000). Analysis of behavioral skills utilized by suicidal adolescents receiving dialectical behavior therapy. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 7, 183-187.

Neacsiu, A. D., Rizvi, S. L., & Linehan, M. M. (2010). Dialectical behavior therapy skills use as a mediator and outcome of treatment for borderline personality disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 832-839.

Soler, J., Pascual, J. C., Tiana, T., Cebrià, A., Barrachina, J., Campins, M. J., & Pérez, V. (2009). Dialectical behaviour therapy skills training compared to standard group therapy in borderline personality disorder: A 3-month randomised controlled clinical trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 353-358.

Stepp, S. D., Epler, A. J., Jahng, S., & Trull, T. J. (2008). The effect of dialectical behavior therapy skills use on borderline personality disorder features. Journal of Personality Disorders, 22, 549-563.

Wampold, B. E. (2001). The Great Psychotherapy Debate: Models, Methods, Findings. Mahwah: Erlbaum.

Westen, D., Novotny, C. M., & Thompson-Brenner, H. (2004). The empirical status of empirically supported psychotherapies: assumptions, findings, and reporting in controlled clinical trials. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 631-663.

Common Features Between Empirically-Supported Treatments for BPD

de Groot, E. R., Verheul, R., & Trijsburg, R. W. (2008). An integrative perspective on psychotherapeutic treatments for borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 22, 332-352.

Weinberg, I., Ronningstam, E., Goldblatt, M. J., Schecter, M., & Maltsberger, J. T. (2011). Common factors in empirically supported treatments of borderline personality disorder. Current Psychiatry Reports, 13, 60-68.

Pharmacotherapy

Gunderson, J. G. (2011). Borderline personality disorder. New England Journal of Medicine, 364, 2037-2042.

Leichsenring, F., Leibing, E., Kruse, J., New, A. S., & Leweke, F. (2011). Borderline personality disorder. Lancet, 377, 74-84.

Lieb, K., Völlm, B., Rücker, G., Timmer, A., & Stoffers, J. M. (2010). Pharmacotherapy for borderline personality disorder: Cochrane systematic review of randomised trials. British Journal of Psychiatry, 196, 4 –12.

National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. (2009). Borderline Personality Disorder: The NICE GUIDELINE on Treatment and Management. National Clinical Practice Guideline No. 78. British Psychological Society & Royal College of Psychiatrists.

Silk, K. R. (2011). The process of managing medications in patients with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 17, 311-319.

Zanarini, M. C., Frankenburg, F. R., Hennen, J., & Silk, K. R. (2004). Mental health service utilization by borderline personality disorder patients and axis ii comparison subjects followed prospectively for 6 years. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 28-36.

Suicidality & Self-Injury

Black, D. W., Blum, N., Pfohl, B., & Hale, N. (2004). Suicidal behavior in borderline personality disorder: Prevalence, risk factors, prediction, and prevention. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18, 226-239.

Gunderson, J. G. (2011). Borderline personality disorder. New England Journal of Medicine, 364, 2037-2042.

McMain, S. (2007). Effectiveness of psychosocial treatments on suicidality in personality disorders. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 52, 103S-114S.

Oldham, J. M. (2006). Borderline personality disorder and suicidality. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 20-26.

Paris, J. (2008). An evidence-based approach to managing suicidal behavior in patients with BPD. Social Work in Mental Health, 6, 99-108.

Soloff, P. H., Lynch, K. G., & Kelly, T. M. (2002). Childhood abuse as a risk factor for suicidal behavior in borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 16, 201-214.

Substance Abuse

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Gregory, R. J., DeLucia-Deranja, E., & Mogle, J. A. (2010). Dynamic deconstructive psychotherapy versus optimized community care for borderline personality disorder co-occurring with alcohol use disorders: a 30-month follow-up. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198, 292-298.

Linehan, M. M., Schmidt,Henry, I.,II, Dimeff, L. A., Craft, J. C., Kanter, J., & Comtois, K. A. (1999). Dialectical behavior therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder and drug-dependence. American Journal on Addictions, 8, 279-292.

Linehan, M. M., Dimeff, L. A., Reynolds, S. K., Comtois, K. A., Welch, S. S., Heagerty, P., & Kivlahan, D. R. (2002). Dialectal behavior therapy versus comprehensive validation therapy plus 12-step for the treatment of opioid dependent women meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 67, 13.

Pennay, A., Cameron, J., Reichert, T., Strickland, T., Lee, N. K., Hall, K., & Lubman, D. I. (2011). A systematic review of interventions for co-occurring substance use disorder and borderline personality disorder. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 41, 363-373.

Trull, T. J., Sher, C., Minks-Brown, J., & Durbin, R. Burr. (2000). Borderline personality disorder and substance use disorders: A review and integration. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 235-253.

Boundaries

Fonagy, P., Gergely, G., Jurist, E., & Target, M. (2002). Affect regulation, mentalization and the development of the self. New York: Other Press.

Gabbard, G.O., & Lester, E. (1995). Boundaries and Boundary Violations in Psychoanalysis. New York: Basic Books.

Gabbard, G. O., & Wilkinson, S. M. (1994). Management of Countertransference with Borderline Patients. Washington: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.

Gutheil, T. G. (1989). Borderline personality disorder, boundary violations, and patient-therapist sex: medicolegal pitfalls. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 597-602.

Gutheil, T. G., & Gabbard, G. O. (1993) The concept of boundaries in clinical practice: theoretical and risk-management dimensions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 188-196.

Gutheil, T.G. & Gabbard, G.O. (1998). Misuses and Misunderstandings of Boundary Theory in Clinical and Regulatory Settings. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 409-414.

Pope, K. S., & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008). A practical approach to boundaries in psychotherapy: making decisions, bypassing blunders, and mending fences. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64, 638-652.

Countertransference

Aviram, R. B., Brodsky, B. S., & Stanley, B. (2006). Borderline personality disorder, stigma, and treatment implications. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 14, 249-256.

Betan, E., Heim, A. K., Zittel Conklin, C., & Westen, D. (2005). Countertransference phenomena and personality pathology in clinical practice: an empirical investigation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 890-898.

Gabbard, G. O., & Wilkinson, S. M. (1994). Management of Countertransference with Borderline Patients. Washington: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.

Hayes, J. A., Gelso, C. J., & Hummel, A. M. (2011). Managing countertransference. Psychotherapy, 48, 88-97.

McIntyre, S. M., & Schwartz, R. C. (1998). Therapists’ differential countertransference reactions toward clients with major depression or borderline personality disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54, 923-931.

Rossberg J. I., Karterud, S., Pedersen, G., Friis, S. (2007). An empirical study of countertransference reactions toward patients with personality disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 48, 225-30.

Inpatient Admission

Hull, J. W., Yeomans, F., Clarkin, J., & Li, C. (1996). Factors associated with multiple hospitalizations of patients with borderline personality disorder. Psychiatric Services, 47(6), 638-641.

Bartak, A., Andrea, H., Spreeuwenberg, M.D., Ziegler, U.M., Dekker, J., Rossum, B.V. … Emmelkamp, P.M.G. (2011). Effectiveness of Outpatient, Day Hospital, and Inpatient Psychotherapeutic Treatment for Patients with Cluster B Personality Disorders. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 80, 28-38.

McMain, S. (2007). Effectiveness of psychosocial treatments on suicidality in personality disorders. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 52, 103S-114S.

Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York, NY US: Guilford Press.

Oldham, J.M. (2006) Borderline personality disorder and suicidality. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 20–26.

Oldham, J. M., Gabbard, G. O., Goin, M. K., Gunderson, J., Soloff, P., Spiegel, D., Stone, M., & Phillips, K. A. (2001). Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with borderlne personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1-52.

Paris, J. (2004). Is Hospitalization Useful for Suicidal Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder?. Journal Of Personality Disorders, 18(3), 240-247.

Paris, J. (2008). Treatment of borderline personality disorder: A guide to evidence-based practice. New York, NY US: Guilford Press.

Pascual, J. C., Córcoles, D., Castaño, J., Ginés, J. M., Gurrea, A., Martín-Santos, R., & Bulbena, A. (2007). Hospitalization and pharmacotherapy for borderline personality disorder in a psychiatric emergency service. Psychiatric Services, 58(9), 1199-1204.

About Us

Gunderson, J. G. (2011). Borderline personality disorder. New England Journal of Medicine, 364, 2037-2042.

Ogrodniczuk, J. S., Kealy, D., & Howell-Jones, G. (2009). A view from the trenches: a survey of Canadian clinicians’ perspectives regarding the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 15(6), 449-453.